|Malay name||Parti Keadilan Rakyat|
ڤرتي كعاديلن رعيت
Jan4 man4 gung1 zing3 dong2
|Tamil name||மக்கள் நீதி கட்சி|
Makkaḷ Nīti Kaṭci
|Abbreviation||KEADILAN (official), PKR|
|Secretary-General||Saifuddin Nasution Ismail|
|Deputy President||Rafizi Ramli|
Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad
Chang Lih Kang
Nurul Izzah Anwar
Awang Husaini Sahari
|AMK's Chief||Adam Adli|
|Women's Chief||Fadhlina Sidek|
|Founded||10 December 1998 (Formation of Pergerakan Keadilan Sosial NGO)|
4 April 1999 (Takeover of Ikatan Masyarakat Islam Malaysia and renamed Parti Keadilan Nasional)
3 August 2003 (Merger with Parti Rakyat Malaysia and renamed Parti Keadilan Rakyat)
|Headquarters||A-1-09, Merchant Square, Jalan Tropicana Selatan 1, 47410 Petaling Jaya, Selangor|
|Think tank||Institut Rakyat|
|Student wing||Mahasiswa Keadilan|
|Youth wing||Angkatan Muda Keadilan (AMK)|
|Women's wing||Wanita Keadilan|
|Women's youth wing||Srikandi Keadilan|
|Membership (2022)||2.97 million|
|National affiliation||Barisan Alternatif (1999–2004)|
Pakatan Rakyat (2008–2015)
Pakatan Harapan (Since 2015)
|Colours||Light blue, red, white|
|Slogan||Keadilan Untuk Semua|
Lawan Tetap Lawan
Membujur Lalu Melintang Patah
|Anthem||Arus Perjuangan Bangsa|
8 / 70
31 / 222
|Dewan Undangan Negeri:|
37 / 606
|Chief minister of states|
2 / 13
|This article is part of a series on the|
The People's Justice Party (Malay: Parti Keadilan Rakyat; Jawi: ڤرتي كعاديلن رعيت); often known simply as KEADILAN or PKR, is a reformist political party in Malaysia formed on 3 August 2003 through a merger of the party's predecessor, the National Justice Party, with the socialist Malaysian People's Party. The party's predecessor was founded by Wan Azizah Wan Ismail during the height of the Reformasi movement on 4 April 1999 after the arrest of her husband, former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim. The party is one of main partners of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition.
In the first general elections contested by the party in 1999, the party won five seats in the Dewan Rakyat. A resurgence of the ruling Barisan Nasional coalition in the 2004 general elections reduced the party to just one seat. However, an election wave in the 2008 general elections favoring the opposition increased the party's parliamentary representation to 31 seats, as well as allowing them to form the government in 5 states. This triggered the resignation of Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and a lift on the five-year political ban imposed on Anwar Ibrahim on 14 April 2008.
The Pakatan Harapan coalition defeated Barisan Nasional, which had ruled the country for 60 years since independence, in the 2018 general elections, allowing the coalition to form the government. However, defections from within PKR as well as the withdrawal of the Malaysian United Indigenous Party (BERSATU) from the coalition caused the collapse of the PH government after just 22 months in power, culminating in the 2020 Malaysian political crisis that resulted in the rise of the Perikatan Nasional government with ally-turned-enemy Muhyiddin Yassin at the helm. The PH coalition would return to power once again after the 2022 elections. The elections produced a hung parliament for the first time in the country's history, but an alliance with other parties allowed Anwar Ibrahim to become the 10th Prime Minister of Malaysia through a unity government with his political rivals in Barisan Nasional as well as other political coalitions and parties to achieve a two-thirds majority in the Dewan Rakyat.
The party enjoys strong support from urban states such as Selangor, Penang, Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Johor, as well as the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. It promotes an agenda with a strong emphasis on social justice and anti-corruption, as well as adopting a platform that seeks to abolish the New Economic Policy to replace it with an economic policy that takes a non-ethnic approach in poverty eradication and correcting economic imbalances.
The economy of Malaysia was affected by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The finance minister at the time, Anwar Ibrahim (also the deputy prime minister), instituted a series of economic reforms and austerity measures in response. These actions were exacerbated when he tabled controversial amendments to the Anti-Corruption Act that sought to increase the powers of the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC). Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad disagreed with these measures and ultimately sacked Anwar from all his posts. This incident and the circumstances in which it happened led to a public outcry in what became known as the Reformasi movement, but it also resulted in the arrest and subsequent incarceration of Anwar on what many believed to be politically motivated charges of sexual misconduct and corruption.
The movement, which began while the country hosted the Commonwealth Games, initially demanded the resignation of Malaysia's then-Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad, and for the end of alleged corruption and cronyism within the Barisan Nasional-led (BN) government. It would go on to become a reformist movement demanding social equality and social justice in Malaysia. The movement consisted of civil disobedience, demonstrations, sit-ins, rioting, occupations and online activism.
Once Anwar had been detained, the Reformasi movement continued to develop, with "Justice for Anwar" remaining a potent rallying call. Before his arrest, Anwar had designated his wife, Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, as the successor of the movement. Wan Azizah developed an enormous following, attracting thousands to her speeches. For a time, these followers held massive weekend street demonstrations, mostly in Kuala Lumpur but also occasionally in Penang and other cities, for "keadilan" (justice) and against Mahathir.
Building on the momentum of Reformasi, a political movement called the Social Justice Movement (Malay: Pergerakan Keadilan Sosial), also known as ADIL, was launched on 10 December 1998 and was led by Wan Azizah. However, facing difficulties in registering ADIL as a political party, the Reformasi movement instead merged with the Muslim Community Union of Malaysia (Malay: Ikatan Masyarakat Islam Malaysia), a minor Islamic political party based in Terengganu, and relaunched it as the National Justice Party (Malay: Parti Keadilan Nasional), also known as PKN or KeADILan, on 4 April 1999. The registration was just in time for the new party to take part in the 1999 general elections. The launch of KeADILan put to rest months of speculation about whether Wan Azizah and Anwar would merely remain in ADIL, join PAS, or try to stage a coup against UMNO. Although Keadilan was multiracial, its primary target was middle-class, middle-of-the-road Malays, particularly from UMNO. The party has been noted as having rough similarities with the now-defunct multi-racial social democratic Parti Keadilan Masyarakat Malaysia. The party was joined by the Democratic Action Party (DAP), the Malaysian People's Party (PRM) and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) in a big tent alliance of liberals, socialists, and Islamists known as Barisan Alternatif to take on the ruling BN coalition in the 1999 general elections.
Between 27 and 30 September 1999, seven activists, including Keadilan leaders; Vice-President Tian Chua, N. Gobalakrishnan, Youth leader Mohd Ezam Mohd Nor, Fairus Izuddin and Dr Badrul Amin Baharun; were arrested and as a result prevented from contesting in the elections. Further arrests were made on 10 April 2001 and those arrested were subsequently charged and incarcerated under the Internal Security Act. They became known as the Reformasi 10.
1999 general election
The legislative elections of 29 November 1999 were convened in advance, the pretext being the start of Ramadan. As the outgoing Parliament was dissolved on 11 November, the campaign was very short, drawing strong criticism from the opposition. The party entered the campaign with many of its key leaders under arrest along with many disadvantages, as the short campaign was marked by the distribution of pornographic videocassettes implicating former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar in the villages, as well as the opposition having a lack of access to written and audiovisual media. As a result of the mounting disadvantages, the election saw the party winning only five parliamentary seats in the elections despite gaining 11.67% of the total votes cast. However, Wan Azizah was elected as the Member of Parliament for Permatang Pauh; the seat formerly held by her husband, Anwar Ibrahim, with a majority of 9,077 votes. The Barisan Alternatif as a whole gained 40.21% of the total votes cast with PAS winning 27 seats and DAP winning ten seats. The big opposition winner was PAS, which gained 20 seats as well as a majority in two Assemblies in the northern States of Kelantan and Terangganu. As for the BN coalition of Mahathir Mohamad, it however scored a two-thirds majority with 148 seats (despite losing 14 seats). Nevertheless, the BN coalition lost power in two of the thirteen states, along with four members of Mahathir's Cabinet who also lost their seats. For the first time in Malaysia's history, UMNO, the dominant Malay-based party which had ruled the country for 40 years since independence, received less than half of the total vote of ethnic Malays.
Merger with Parti Rakyat Malaysia
The post election period saw negotiations between KeADILan and Parti Rakyat Malaysia on a possible merger. Despite some opposition in both parties to the move, a 13-point Memorandum of Understanding was eventually signed by the two parties on 5 July 2002. On 3 August 2003, the new merged entity was officially launched and assumed its current name. Somehow, as PRM had yet to be de-registered by the authorities, the remained dissidents convened a National Congress in Johor Bahru and elected a new Executive Committee led by former PRM youth leader, Hassan Abdul Karim to resume political activities on 17 April 2005.
2004 general election
As the new amendments to the party constitution had yet to be approved by the Registrar of Societies, candidates from PRM contested the 2004 general election using the symbol of the old National Justice Party. The party fared poorly in the elections and only managed to retain one parliamentary seat, Permatang Pauh which is held by Dr Wan Azizah, despite winning 9% of the popular vote. The poor showing was later attributed to malapportionment and gerrymandering in the delineation of constituencies, with one estimate suggesting that on average, a vote for the BN government was worth 28 times the vote of a Keadilan supporter.[unreliable source?]
Anwar Ibrahim freed
On 2 September 2004, in a decision by the Federal Court, Anwar Ibrahim's sodomy conviction was overturned and he was freed. This unexpected turn of events came timely for KEADILAN which was facing flagging morale due to its dismal performance in the elections.
In December 2005 PKR organised its second national congress.[unreliable source?] Among the motions passed was the New Economic Agenda that envisioned a non-racial economic policy to replace the race-based New Economic Policy. PKR managed a breakthrough into Sarawak politics in May 2006. In Sarawak state elections, Dominique Ng, a lawyer and activist, won in the Padungan constituency in Kuching, a majority Chinese locale. KEADILAN lost narrowly in Saribas, a Malay-Melanau constituency by just 94 votes. Sarawak is a traditional BN stronghold. PKR has also pursued an aggressive strategy of getting key personalities from within and outside politics. In July 2006, Khalid Ibrahim, former CEO of Permodalan Nasional Berhad and Guthrie, was appointed as Treasurer of the PKR.
2008 general election
In the 2008 elections, PKR won 31 seats in Parliament, with the DAP and PAS making substantial gains as well with 28 seats and 23 seats respectively. In total, the taking of 82 seats by the opposition to BN's 140 seats made it the best performance in Malaysian history by the opposition, and denied BN the two-thirds majority required to make constitutional changes in the Dewan Rakyat.
PKR also successfully contested the state legislative elections which saw the loose coalition of PKR, DAP and PAS forming coalition governments in the states of Kelantan, Kedah, Penang, Perak and Selangor. The offices of the Menteri Besar of Selangor and the Deputy Chief Minister of Penang were held by KEADILAN elected representatives, Khalid Ibrahim and Mohd Fairus Khairuddin, respectively.
Anwar's return to politics
On 14 April 2008, Anwar celebrated his official return to the political stage, as his ban from public office expired a decade after he was sacked as deputy prime minister. One of the main reasons the opposition seized a third of parliamentary seats and five states in the worst ever showing for the BN coalition that has ruled for half a century, was due to him leading at the helm. A gathering of more than 10,000 supporters greeted Anwar in a rally welcoming back his return to politics. In the midst of the rally, police interrupted Anwar after he had addressed the rally for nearly half an hour and forced him to stop the gathering.[unreliable source?]
Malaysia's government intensified its efforts on 6 March to portray opposition figure Anwar Ibrahim as political turncoats, days ahead of Malaysian general election, 2008 on 8 March that would determine whether he posed a legitimate threat to the ruling coalition. Campaigning wrapped up 7 March for general elections that would see gains for Malaysia's opposition amid anger over race and religion among minority Chinese and Indians. Malaysians voted on 8 March 2008 in parliamentary elections. Election results showed that the ruling government suffered a setback when it failed to obtain two-thirds majority in parliament, and five out of 12 state legislatures were won by the opposition parties. Reasons for the setback of the ruling party, which had retained power since the nation declared independence in 1957, were the rising inflation, crime and ethnic tensions.
Permatang Pauh by-election
Malaysia's government and ruling coalition declared defeat in a landslide victory in the by-election by Anwar Ibrahim. Muhammad Muhammad Taib, information chief of the United Malays National Organisation which leads the BN coalition stated: Yes of course we have lost . . . we were the underdogs going into this race. Malaysia's Election Commission officials announced Anwar won by an astounding majority against Arif Shah Omar Shah of National Front coalition and over Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi's UMNO. Reuters reported that according to news website Malaysiakini, Anwar Ibrahim had won with a majority of 16,210 votes. He had won 26,646 votes, while BN's Arif Omar won 10,436 votes. Anwar's People's Justice Party's spokeswoman Ginie Lim told BBC: "We won already. We are far ahead".
On 28 August 2008, Anwar, dressed in a dark blue traditional Malay outfit and black "songkok" hat, took the oath at the main chamber of Parliament house in Kuala Lumpur, as MP for Permatang Pauh at 10.03 am before Speaker Tan Sri Pandikar Amin Mulia. He formally declared Anwar the leader of the 3-party opposition alliance. With his wife Wan Azizah Wan Ismail and his daughter Nurul Izzah Anwar, also a parliamentarian, Anwar announced: "I'm glad to be back after a decade. The prime minister has lost the mandate of the country and the nation". Anwar needed at least 30 government lawmakers especially from Sabah and Sarawak MPs' votes to defect to form a government.
Suara Keadilan publication license suspended
In June 2010, Suara Keadilan's publication was suspended for publishing a report which claimed a government agency is bankrupt. Suara Keadilan is run by opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim's PKR party. The Home Ministry, which oversees Malaysia's newspapers, said it was not satisfied with the paper's explanation for the allegedly inaccurate report.
In 2014, the Party's Strategy Director then Vice-President-cum-Secretary-General, Rafizi Ramli initiated the failed Kajang Move in a bid to topple the 14th Menteri Besar of Selangor, Abdul Khalid Ibrahim, and install the party's de facto leader Anwar Ibrahim as his replacement. The political manoeuvre resulted in a nine-month political crisis within the state of Selangor and the Pakatan Rakyat coalition, that also involved the palace of Selangor, a by-election costing RM1.6 million in taxpayers’ money, the party losing one seat in Selangor's assembly and Malaysian Parliament. PKR also ended up not getting the Menteri Besar that it wanted. The crisis concluded with the appointment of PKR's Deputy President, Azmin Ali, as the 15th Menteri Besar of Selangor. Most analysts say that the Kajang Move was a great failure.
On 12 September 2018 the incumbent Danyal Balagopal Abdullah resigned as Member of Parliament for Port Dickson to allow Anwar Ibrahim, who had been granted a royal pardon by the country's monarch the Yang di-Pertuan Agong to re-enter parliament after a 3-year absence. The resignation caused the Port Dickson by-election, 2018 and was dubbed the 'PD Move'. Anwar won the seat with an increased majority against six other candidates.
Collapse of the Pakatan Harapan government
The 2020 Malaysian political crisis culminated in the collapse of the Pakatan Harapan government. The political crisis began when several political forces, including then PKR deputy president Azmin Ali, attempted to depose the current government led by Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad by forming a new government without going through a general election. This was achieved through backroom deals popularly known as the Sheraton Move, which saw the withdrawal of BERSATU from the coalition as well as the exit of Azmin Ali along with 10 other PKR MPs. This deprived the coalition of its majority and paved the way for Muhyiddin Yassin, the President of BERSATU, to form a backdoor government positioning himself as Prime Minister with the support of the newly formed Perikatan Nasional coalition
During the political crisis, in a Facebook Live broadcast of a night prayer session at Anwar's residence, Anwar said that he had been informed of a "treachery" being committed that involved "former friends from BERSATU and a small group from PKR". Later, Azmin, in a statement, claimed that his action was to protect then Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad, who was forced to choose a date for the transition of power during Pakatan Harapan's presidential meeting on 21 February, and that the statutory declaration presented to the Agong was to cement support for Mahathir, not to elect a new prime minister. He further said that the real traitor was the faction that tried to usurp Mahathir.
On 24 February 2020, PKR held a press conference where its general secretary, Saifuddin Nasution Ismail, announced that Azmin and the Minister of Housing and Local Government, Zuraida Kamaruddin, who was then a vice president of PKR, had been dismissed by the party. Saifuddin explained that they were expelled due to their actions on 23 February which went against the party's official line regarding the position of Prime Minister. Azmin later announced that he would be forming an independent bloc at the parliament along with Zuraida and the other nine MPs who had left the party following his expulsion.
PKR held a meeting at its headquarters on 1 March 2020. While leaving the headquarters after the meeting ended, members who were associated with the former deputy president Azmin Ali, such as vice-president Tian Chua and former youth wing deputy chief Afif Bahardin, were harassed and assaulted by PKR supporters who accused them of being "traitors". Police later revealed that one arrest had been made in relation to the incident involving Chua, with at least two reports were lodged.
A large number of PKR grassroots member who aligned with Azmin's camp had left the party once the political crisis began. This began with three PKR Kelantan branch leaders who announced their immediate departure from the party on 26 February after Azmin and Zuraida Kamaruddin, the party's vice-president, were sacked from their positions and expelled after their betrayal in the Sheraton Move. This continued with around 2,000 members from the Pasir Puteh branch in Kelantan leaving the party on 28 February,  followed by 536 members from the Kota Raja branch in Selangor on 1 March. The day after, around 400 PKR members in Perak also left the party. This exodus was continued by the exit of 500 members from the Arau and Padang Besar branches in Perlis on 15 March.
On 4 March 2020, the Penang Exco of Agriculture, Agro-based Industries, Rural Development and Health, Afif Bahardin, resigned from his position in Penang State Executive Council. A known supporter of Azmin Ali back when the latter was the party's deputy president, he claimed to have been pressured by the party's state and central leadership to resign from his post. He was replaced by Norlela Ariffin, the state assemblywoman for Penanti, who was appointed as the new state councillor and sworn in on 12 March in front of the Yang Dipertua Negeri, Abdul Rahman Abbas. On the same day, Chong Fat Full, another Azmin ally representing Pemanis in the Johor assembly, formally announced his exit from the party to become a Perikatan-friendly independent, effectively handling them a majority in the state assembly with a marginal 29 seats against Harapan's 27, thus seizing control of a key state that had previously been won by Harapan.
The collapse of Harapan governments in the state level continued on 12 May when two Azmin allies in the Kedah assembly: Robert Ling Kui Ee and Azman Nasrudin, representing Sidam and Lunas respectively, had both left the party to become independents supporting Perikatan Nasional. This handed a majority for Perikatan to form the Kedah government, seizing yet another state that had previously been won by Harapan, thus leaving the coalition with only 13 of 36 seats. This allowed Kedah state opposition leader Muhammad Sanusi Md Nor to announce the formation of a new government later in the day with the support of 23 state assemblymen, including the two ex-PKR members and four of six BERSATU assemblymen previously aligned with Pakatan Harapan. What followed was another departure on 17 May by the Srikandi Keadilan Chief, Nurainie Haziqah Shafii, claiming to have 'lost confidence in the idealism of the struggle and the direction of PKR'.
The month of June witnessed the departure of more PKR members and representatives, beginning with the Member of Parliament (MP) for Lubok Antu, Jugah Muyang, on 5 June. He had been elected as an independent in the previous election before joining PKR after they had formed the government. However, he left them for BERSATU after the latter deposed the previous government and became the new ruling party. This was followed by another independent MP, Syed Abu Hussin Hafiz, who was MP for Bukit Gantang and had previously been elected under UMNO, who also joined BERSATU alongside Jugah. The departures continued on June 13, when Daroyah Alwi, the Deputy Speaker & Exco of the Selangor state assembly as well as an ally of Azmin Ali, announced that she had quit the party to became an independent in support of Perikatan Nasional. She came out on the grounds that he had "lost confidence in the President (Anwar Ibrahim) and his harpist leadership of the idealism of the struggle".
The exodus of party members in support of Azmin Ali continued on 21 June when 50 Johor Wanita PKR leaders left the party, followed by 25 PKR grassroots leaders in the Saratok branch, that was once led by the traitrous Ali Biju, on 22 June. This was followed by the departure of Afif Bahardin on 24 June. He had been another key Azmin ally, having previously been Deputy Youth Chief of the party before marginally losing the election for the position of Youth Chief in 2018, His departure was followed by Haniza Talha on 29 June, who had been another prominent Azmin ally, being the women's chief of PKR as well as a Selangor Exco. On 11 July, she was sacked as a State Exco member. Haniza Talha has described PKR's decision to sack her from the party as an “act of revenge”. On the same day, she was replaced by the Kuantan MP, Fuziah Salleh, as the party's new Women's Chief
On 30 June 2020, Salleh Said Keruak, a prominent politician who was a former Sabah Chief Minister and Federal Minister from UMNO, cancelled his application to join PKR citing the party's internal turmoil. He said the decision was made last April, and with the cancellation, he remained an independent since leaving UMNO in 2018. Previously, Salleh had applied to join PKR in October of the previous year. On 1 July 2020, Terengganu PKR women chief, Sharifah Norhayati Syed Omar Alyahya exit PKR along with 131 other members. The decision was made after seeing injustice in the party's top leadership.
The series of departures continued throughout July when PKR's Terengganu women's chief, Sharifah Norhayati Syed Omar Alyahya, left PKR along with 131 other members on 1 July. This was followed by the Penang state assemblyman from Sungai Acheh, Zulkifli Ibrahim, who was sacked from PKR before joining BERSATU on 4 July. On the same day, 250 PKR members from the Ampang branch left the party, along with two councillors, Jess Choy and Shoba Selvarajoo, who was also an Exco in the women's wing. The party's Jempol branch chief, Karip Mohd Salleh, left the party along with 25 other members on 15 July, causing the branch to be temporarily paralysed. On 30 July, Inanam assemblyman & Sabah Assistant Minister of Finance, Kenny Chua Teck Ho, was sacked from PKR for backing UMNO's Musa Aman as Chief Minister of Sabah
On 9 August 2020, BERSATU's Kuala Krau Division Chief, Mohamad Rafidee Hashim, left the party and joined PKR. He stated his action was because "the party was more consistent and principled in its efforts to fight for reform".
The defections of PKR MPs continued when two MPs, Steven Choong and Larry Sng, who represented Tebrau and Julau respectively, became independents on 27 and 28 February 2021. They would both go on to form the Parti Bangsa Malaysia (PBM) and declare their support for the ruling Perikatan Nasional coalition. The exodus would finally end on 13 March 2021 when PKR vice-president Xavier Jayakumar, another known Azmin ally, announced his resignation as both vice-president and party member, citing his 'frustrations' by the events of the past year. Subsequently, he would become an independent MP while declaring his full support to Perikatan Nasional's leadership.
PKR's constitution has as one of their core principles, the establishment of "a society that is just and a nation that is democratic, progressive and united". In practice, the party has primarily focused on promoting social justice, economic justice, eliminating political corruption and human rights issues within a non-ethnic framework.
List of leaders
|Order||Name||Term of office||Mandates|
|1||Wan Azizah Wan Ismail||4 April 1999||17 November 2018||1st (2001)|
|2||Anwar Ibrahim||17 November 2018||Incumbent||6th (2018)|
|Order||Name||Term of office||Mandates|
|2||Abdul Rahman Othman||2001||2007||1st (2001)|
|3||Syed Husin Ali||2007||28 November 2010||3rd (2007)|
|4||Mohamed Azmin Ali||28 November 2010||24 February 2020||4th (2010)|
|-||Vacant||24 February 2020||17 July 2022||-|
|5||Rafizi Ramli||17 July 2022||Incumbent||7th (2022)|
Party Organisational Structure (2022–2025)
Central Leadership Council
Youth Wing (Angkatan Muda Keadilan)
Women's Wing (Wanita Keadilan)
Dewan Negara (Senate)
Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)
Members of Parliament of the 15th Malaysian Parliament
PKR has 31 members in the House of Representatives.
Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)
Malaysian State Assembly Representatives
|State||No.||Parliament Constituency||No.||State Constituency||Member||Party|
|Perlis||P2||Kangar||N8||Indera Kayangan||Gan Ay Ling||PKR|
|Kedah||P15||Sungai Petani||N28||Bakar Arang||Adam Loh Wee Chai||PKR|
|N29||Sidam||Bau Wong Bau Ek||PKR|
|Penang||P45||Bukit Mertajam||N14||Machang Bubok||Lee Khai Loon||PKR|
|P46||Batu Kawan||N17||Bukit Tengah||Gooi Hsiao-Leung||PKR|
|N18||Bukit Tambun||Goh Choon Aik||PKR|
|P48||Bukit Bendera||N24||Kebun Bunga||Lee Boon Heng||PKR|
|P52||Bayan Baru||N35||Batu Uban||Kumaresan Aramugam||PKR|
|N36||Pantai Jerejak||Fahmi Zainol||PKR|
|N37||Batu Maung||Mohamad Abdul Hamid||PKR|
|Perak||P63||Tambun||N24||Hulu Kinta||Muhamad Arafat Varisai Mahamad||PKR|
|P70||Kampar||N43||Tulang Sekah||Mohd Azlan Helmi Helmi||PKR|
|P61||Gopeng||N45||Simpang Pulai||Wong Chai Yi||PKR|
|N46||Teja||Sandrea Ng Shy Ching||PKR|
|P75||Bagan Datuk||N54||Hutan Melintang||Wasanthee Sinnasamy||PKR|
|Pahang||P82||Indera Mahkota||N13||Semambu||Chan Chun Kuang||PKR|
|P83||Kuantan||N14||Teruntum||Sim Chon Siang||PKR|
|Selangor||P97||Selayang||N14||Rawang||Chua Wei Kiat||PKR|
|P98||Gombak||N16||Sungai Tua||Amirudin Shari||PKR|
|P099||Ampang||N19||Bukit Antarabangsa||Mohd Kamri Kamaruddin||PKR|
|N20||Lembah Jaya||Syed Ahmad Syed Abdul Rahman Alhadad||PKR|
|P101||Hulu Langat||N25||Kajang||David Cheong Kian Young||PKR|
|P105||Petaling Jaya||N32||Seri Setia||Fahmi Ngah||PKR|
|P106||Damansara||N37||Bukit Lanjan||Pua Pei Ling||PKR|
|P107||Sungai Buloh||N39||Kota Damansara||Muhamad Izuan Kasim||PKR|
|P108||Shah Alam||N40||Kota Anggerik||Najwan Halimi||PKR|
|P110||Klang||N46||Pelabuhan Klang||Azmizam Zaman Huri||PKR|
|P111||Kota Raja||N48||Sentosa||Gunarajah George||PKR|
|P112||Kuala Langat||N51||Tanjong Sepat||Borhan Aman Shah||PKR|
|Negeri Sembilan||P128||Seremban||N13||Sikamat||Aminuddin Harun||PKR|
|N14||Ampangan||Tengku Zamrah Tengku Sulaiman||PKR|
|P129||Kuala Pilah||N18||Pilah||Noorzunita Begum Abdullah||PKR|
|P132||Port Dickson||N29||Chuah||Yew Boon Lye||PKR|
|N33||Sri Tanjong||Gunasekaren Palasamy||PKR|
|Johor||P163||Kulai||N51||Bukit Batu||Arthur Chiong Sen Sern||PKR|
|P172||Kota Kinabalu||N18||Inanam||Peto Galim||PKR|
|Total||Perlis (1), Kedah (2), Penang (7), Perak (5), Pahang (2), Selangor (12), Negeri Sembilan (5), Johor (1), Sabah (2)|
PKR state governments
|State||Leader type||Member||Party||State Constituency|
|Negeri Sembilan||Menteri Besar||Aminuddin Harun||PKR||Sikamat|
|Selangor||Menteri Besar||Amirudin Shari||PKR||Sungai Tua|
|State||Leader type||Member||Party||State Constituency|
|Penang||Deputy Chief Minister I||Mohamad Abdul Hamid||PKR||Batu Maung|
General election results
|Election||Total seats won||Seat Contested||Total votes||Share of votes||Outcome of election||Election leader|
5 / 193
|78||773,679||11.67%||5 seats; Opposition coalition
|Wan Azizah Wan Ismail|
1 / 219
|80||617,518||8.9%||4 seats; Opposition coalition
|Wan Azizah Wan Ismail|
31 / 222
|84||1,509,080||18.58%||30 seats; Opposition coalition
|Wan Azizah Wan Ismail|
30 / 222
|99||2,254,211||20.39%||1 seats; Opposition coalition
48 / 222
|71||2,046,484||17.10%||18 seats; Governing coalition,
later Opposition coalition
|Wan Azizah Wan Ismail|
31 / 222
|100||2,442,038||15.74%||17 seats; Governing coalition
State election results
- List of political parties in Malaysia
- Malaysian General Election
- Politics of Malaysia
- Pakatan Rakyat
- Pakatan Harapan
- Zairil Khir Johari, ed. (2016). Finding Malaysia making Sense of an Eccentric Nation. SIRD. ISBN 9789672165972.
- Byoung-Hoon Lee; Ng Sek-Hong; Russell D. Lansbury, eds. (2019). Trade Unions and Labour Movements in the Asia-Pacific Region. Routledge. ISBN 9780429576089.
... and the Malaysian People's Party (PRM), a former socialist party. PKR is basically a social-liberal party committed to social justice, equality, equal rights, ...
- Jan Senkyr (2013). "Political Awakening in Malaysia". KAS International Reports (7): 75. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Nam-Kook Kim, ed. (2016). Trade Unions and Labour Movements in the Asia-Pacific Region. Routledge. ISBN 9781317093671.
... In the 2008 elections, Anwar's multiracialist and centrist PKR united the two, not just in opposition to the BN, but by pulling their political ideologies toward the political center. It is this feat that allows the Pakatan coalition to ...
- "Perlembagaan Parti Keadilan Rakyat" (PDF). Parti Keadilan Rakyat.
- Kay Suhaimi (4 May 2018). "Sejarah Penubuhan Parti KeADILan Rakyat dan Pakatan Harapan" (in Malay). Iluminasi. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- Wong Chin Huat (17 August 2007). "Splits in Umno and Opposition unity". The Sun. Archived from the original on 28 September 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021 – via Malaysian Bar.
- Lim Kit Siang (1999). "Media statement by Lim Kit Siang". Democratic Action Party. Archived from the original on 8 November 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Peter Symonds (3 October 1998). "Behind the sacking and arrest of Anwar Ibrahim". World Socialist Web Site. Archived from the original on 26 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "[MALAYSIA] The arrest of Anwar Ibrahim and his political associates". Amnesty International. 3 October 1998. Archived from the original on 7 June 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Suhaimi, Kay (4 May 2018). "Sejarah Penubuhan Parti KeADILan Rakyat dan Pakatan Harapan" (in Malay). Iluminasi. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- "Pergerakan Keadilan Sosial (ADIL)" (in Malay). Pergerakan Keadilan Sosial (ADIL). 10 December 1998. Archived from the original on 27 June 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- Zin Mahmud (6 February 2018). "Di sebalik harapan rakyat kepada PKR" (in Malay). Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- Azam Aris (26 February 2008). "PKR's watershed election". Indian Malaysian Online. Archived from the original on 8 December 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- A Kadir Jasin (21 January 2011). "A cautionary tale of two coalitions". Agenda Daily. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Lyn Nasir (4 April 2014). "Selepas 15 tahun, KEADILAN kini bertambah kuat" (in Malay). Keadilan Daily. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- Francis Loh (22 September 1999). "The Rakyat have Awakened and They want Justice". Aliran Media. Archived from the original on 15 May 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "Malaysia: Fear of torture or ill-treatment / incommunicado detention / prisoners of conscience". Amnesty International. 12 April 2001. Archived from the original on 27 October 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "II. Background: The ISA in Law and Practice". Human Rights Watch. 2004. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "MALAYSIA: Parliamentary elections Dewan Rakyat, 1999".
- "FOCUS: Anwar's party sees future in merger with socialists". Kyodo News International. bnet. 10 April 2000. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Susan Loone (15 July 2001). "PRM votes to dissolve, merge with Keadilan". Malaysiakini. Archived from the original on 15 May 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- K Kabilan (23 November 2001). "Abim factions opposition to Keadilan-PRM merger plan triggers party split". Malaysiakini. Archived from the original on 15 May 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Arfaeza A Aziz (24 July 2002). "Leadership transition details included in Keadilan, PRM merger MoU". Malaysiakini. Archived from the original on 15 May 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Beh Lih Yi (3 August 2003). "PKR launched, promises to be truly multi-racial". Malaysiakini. Archived from the original on 5 July 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Yap Mun Ching (20 January 2004). "PRM to contest elections under allys symbol". Malaysiakini. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Jacqueline Ann Surin (6 June 2005). "22/01: German electoral system more democratic". The Sun. Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "keADILan akan adakan kongres kedua" (in Malay). Malaysia Today. 2 November 2005. Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Ibrahim, Anwar. "New Economic Agenda" (PDF). jahilgoblog.net. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2020.
- "Malaysian opposition leader Anwar marks end of political ban". Agence France-Presse. 12 April 2008. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "Malaysia police halt Anwar speech". Agence France-Presse and Google. Malaysia Today. 15 April 2008. Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "Malaysia government attacks Anwar". CNN. 6 March 2008. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "Malaysian PM suffers election shock". CNN. 8 March 2008. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "Election setback for Malaysia PM". BBC News. 8 March 2008. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "Malaysia's PM rejects calls to resign". CNN. 6 March 2008. Archived from the original on 8 June 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "Malaysian government declares by-election defeat to Anwar". Agence France-Presse. The Standard (Hong Kong). 26 August 2008. Archived from the original on 20 December 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "Anwar Ibrahim wins landslide vote". BBC News. 26 August 2008. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- David Chance; Faisal Aziz; Alex Richardson (26 August 2008). "Website says Anwar wins Malaysia vote with big majority". Reuters (UK). Archived from the original on 13 May 2018. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "Anwar sworn in as member of Malaysian parliament". CNN. 28 August 2008. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- Faisal Aziz (28 August 2008). "NEWSMAKER – Malaysia Anwar sworn in, ends political exile". Reuters India. Archived from the original on 12 January 2009. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "Malaysia's Anwar returns to parliament". Agence France-Presse and Google. 27 August 2008. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "Anwar sworn in, appointed as Opposition Leader". The Edge Daily. 28 August 2008. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "Malaysia suspends main opposition newspaper". Agence France-Presse and Google. 29 June 2008. Archived from the original on 5 July 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Eileen Ng (5 October 2014). "2 out of 3 Kajang Move aims met with the last on the way, says PKR's Rafizi". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Eileen Ng (23 September 2014). "With Azmin as MB, the failure of PKR's Kajang Move, say analysts". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Joceline Tan (13 September 2018). "Anwar to make his grand return in PD". The Star Online. Archived from the original on 14 September 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
- "Anwar Ibrahim says he has been betrayed by Pakatan Harapan partners amid talk of new ruling coalition". Channel Newsasia. 23 February 2020. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
- "Team Azmin distributes SD to cement support for Dr M, not form new govt, says ex-PKR leader". Free Malaysia Today. 25 February 2020. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
- "'Move was to protect Mahathir': Azmin Ali". The Sun Daily. 25 February 2020. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
- "Azmin, Zuraida sacked from PKR". MSN. 24 February 2020. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
- "Azmin, Zuraida sacked from party of Malaysia's Anwar Ibrahim". The Jakarta Post. 24 February 2020. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
- "Azmin and Zuraida seen entering Dr M's Seri Kembangan house after his resignation as PM". Malay Mail. 24 February 2020. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
- "PKR remains intact, Azmin's supporters possibly blameless, says Anwar". The Star (Malaysia). 1 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- "Tian Chua, Dr Afif heckled and labelled 'traitors' by PKR supporters". Malay Mail. 1 March 2020. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
- "Tiga ketua cabang PKR Kelantan isytihar keluar parti" [Three Kelantan PKR branch leaders announces leaving the party]. MalaysiaKini (in Malay). 26 February 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- "2,000 ahli PKR Pasir Puteh keluar parti" [2,000 PKR Pasir Puteh members left the party]. Harian Metro (in Malay). 29 February 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- "563 ahli PKR Cabang Kota Raja keluar parti" [563 Kota Raja PKR branch members left the party]. Berita Harian (in Malay). 1 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- "Ahli PKR Perak keluar parti 'berjemaah'" [Perak PKR members left the party 'together']. Sinar Harian (in Malay). 2 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- "500 ahli PKR Cabang Arau dan Padang Besar keluar parti" [500 Arau PKR branch members left the party]. Bernama (in Malay). 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 16 July 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- "Azmin ally Afif quits as Penang exco". MSN. 4 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "Afif Bahardin forced to resign from state govt". The Star (Malaysia). 4 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- "I was pressured to resign as exco, claims Dr Afif". The Star (Malaysia). 4 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- "PKR's Norlela Ariffin replaces Penang exco Afif Bahardin". New Straits Times. 9 March 2020. Archived from the original on 10 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- "Dr Norlela angkat sumpah" [Dr Norlela sworn in]. Harian Metro (in Malay). 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
- "PKR rep quits, gives Perikatan majority in Johor". MalaysiaKini. 4 March 2020. Archived from the original on 4 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "PKR's Sidam rep cites loss of confidence in Anwar for leaving party". The Star (Malaysia). 12 May 2020. Archived from the original on 17 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
- "Kedah Opposition leader announces formation of Perikatan state govt, collapse of Pakatan and Mukhriz's reign as MB". Malay Mail. 12 May 2020. Archived from the original on 21 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
- "Kedah PAS says 23 reps have lost confidence in Mukhriz". The Star (Malaysia). 12 May 2020. Archived from the original on 17 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
- "Ketua Srikandi PKR keluar parti". 17 May 2020. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "PKR MP from Sarawak quits party, pledges loyalty to Muhyiddin, GPS". Free Malaysia Today. Archived from the original on 27 June 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Lubok Antu MP pledges support for Muhyiddin, PN coalition". 6 June 2020. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Jugah keluar PKR, ikrar sokong PM". 5 June 2020. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- Zain, Oleh Ruwaida Md (13 June 2020). "Dr Daroyah Alwi bawa 35 pemimpin, akar umbi keluar PKR". BH Online (in Malay). Archived from the original on 14 June 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
- "50 pimpinan Wanita PKR Johor umum keluar parti". 21 June 2020. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Pemimpin cabang PKR pernah diterajui Ali Biju umum keluar parti". 22 June 2020. Archived from the original on 16 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Penang rep Dr Afif Bahardin drops PKR for Bersatu | Malay Mail". 24 June 2020. Archived from the original on 30 November 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "PKR confirms sacking of five leaders including Women's chief Haniza Talha". Malay Mail. 29 June 2020. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "EdgeProp.my". Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Haniza describes her sacking as an 'act of revenge'". 29 June 2020. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Fuziah Salleh appointed new PKR women's chief". Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Salleh batalkan permohonan sertai PKR". 30 June 2020. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Ketua Wanita PKR Terengganu keluar parti". July 2020. Archived from the original on 13 September 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Ketua Wanita PKR Terengganu keluar parti". July 2020. Archived from the original on 13 September 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "After being sacked from PKR, Sg Acheh rep Zulkifli Ibrahim to support PN | Free Malaysia Today". Archived from the original on 4 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "250 ahli PKR Ampang keluar parti, AJK pula nafi cabang terbubar". 4 July 2020. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "2 PKR councillors quit party | Free Malaysia Today". Archived from the original on 27 June 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- "Ketua PKR Cabang Jempol isytihar keluar parti". 15 July 2020. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
- "LIVE | Assembly dissolution gazetted, Musa shows he has the numbers". 30 July 2020. Archived from the original on 30 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
- "Bekas Ketua Bersatu Kuala Krau keluar parti, sertai PKR". Sinar Harian. 9 August 2020. Archived from the original on 30 November 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
- "2 PKR MPS quit, declare support for Muhyiddin in blow to party". 28 February 2021. Archived from the original on 11 March 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
- Wani Muthiah (13 March 2021). "Kuala Langat MP Xavier Jayakumar leaves PKR". The Star. Archived from the original on 13 March 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
- "Core Principles". People's Justice Party (Malaysia). 4 March 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "KEADILAN questions progress of gender equality". People's Justice Party (Malaysia). 4 March 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "Fair share of oil revenue for Sabah: Jeffrey". People's Justice Party (Malaysia). 4 March 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Noriyuki Segawa (29 May 2013). "Ethnic Politics in Malaysia: Prospects for National Integration". Nationalism and Ethnic Politics. Taylor & Francis Online. 19 (2): 210–232. doi:10.1080/13537113.2013.788918. S2CID 144977212.
- "Education Expenditure & Contracts". People's Justice Party (Malaysia). 4 March 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- "Malaysian opposition politician arrested at protest over village demolition". People's Justice Party (Malaysia). 4 March 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
- Maznah Mohamad (28 November 2008). "Malaysia — democracy and the end of ethnic politics?". Australian Journal of International Affairs. Taylor & Francis Online. 62 (4): 441–459. doi:10.1080/10357710802480691. S2CID 154845768.