Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Gōng'ānbù
Ministry of Public Security Headquarters
|Type||Constituent Department of the State Council (cabinet-level),|
National level police and counterintelligence agency
|Jurisdiction||Government of China|
|Deputy Ministers responsible|
|Parent agency||State Council|
The Ministry of Public Security (MPS, Chinese: 公安部; pinyin: Gōng'ānbù)[note 1] is a government ministry of the People's Republic of China responsible for public and political security. It oversees more than 1.9 million of the country's law enforcement officers and as such the vast majority of the People's Police. While the MPS is a nationwide police force, conducting counterintelligence and maintaining the political security of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) remain its core functions.
The ministry was established in 1949 after the Chinese Communist Party's victory in the Chinese Civil War as the successor to the Central Social Affairs Department and was known as Ministry of Public Security of the Central People's Government until 1954. Grand General Luo Ruiqing of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) served as its first minister. As the ministry's organization was based on Soviet and Eastern Bloc models, it was responsible for all aspects of national security; ranging from regular police work to intelligence, counterintelligence and the suppression of anti-CCP political and social sentiments. Military intelligence affairs remained with the General Staff Department, while the CCP's International Liaison Department was active in fomenting revolutionary tendencies worldwide by funneling weapons, money and resources into various pro-CCP movements.
The ministry employs a system of public security bureaus throughout the provinces, cities, municipalities and townships of China. The special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau maintain nominally separate police forces. The ministry is headed by the minister of public security. Wang Xiaohong has been the minister in charge since June 2022.
The Ministry of Public Security was among the first government organs established in the PRC. It superseded the Ministry of Public Security of the CCP's Central Military Commission (CMC), a transitional body created in July 1949 by removing the security service remit from the CCP's Central Social Affairs Department (SAD). The MPS began operations on 1 November 1949, at the end of a two-week-long National Conference of Senior Public Security Cadres. Most of its initial staff of less than 500 cadres came from the (former) regional CCP North China Department of Social Affairs. At the national level, its creation signaled the formal abolition of the SAD. The ministry moved to its present location, in the heart of the one-time foreign legation quarters in Beijing, in the spring of 1950.
With the creation of the Ministry of State Security (MSS) in July 1983, MPS lost much of its counterintelligence personnel and remit. Scholars Jichang Lulu and Filip Jirouš have argued that the establishment of the MSS "may have contributed to the illusion that the MPS is simply a law-enforcement police body, separate from intelligence agencies." According to analyst Alex Joske, "the MPS lost much of its foreign intelligence remit after the MSS's creation, but has established new units for cross-border clandestine operations since then." The MPS remains a commonly used cover by MSS officers.
The MPS and its officers have been active abroad in Operation Fox Hunt and Operation Sky Net. The MPS under Sun Lijun had reporters from The Wall Street Journal in Hong Kong under "full operational surveillance" for their reporting of the 1Malaysia Development Berhad (1MDB) scandal.
In 2017, Europol signed a "strategic cooperation agreement" with the MPS. Starting in 2019, the MPS began replacing "domestic security" with "political security" in the names of its units. In 2020, the United States Department of Commerce added the MPS Institute of Forensic Science to the Entity List over human rights issues related to the Uyghur genocide. The institute was removed from the list in 2023 as part of an agreement during the APEC United States 2023 to combat fentanyl trafficking.
MPS has at times been involved in security diplomacy between China and other countries.: 219–220 For example, between 1997 and 2020, it organized 11 bilateral police diplomacy meetings with African countries.: 220 Under Xi Jinping, MPS has increased its training of police officers from other countries.: 241
In 2022, it was reported that the MPS had established numerous overseas police service stations, which sparked investigations by law enforcement organs in multiple countries. In 2023, the United States Department of Justice stated that the MPS engages in covert "intelligence and national security operations far beyond China’s borders," including "illicit, transnational repression schemes." The same year, disinformation operations known as "Spamouflage" or "Dragonbridge" were linked to the MPS.
The MPS is organized into functional departments (see below). Subordinate to the MPS are the provincial- and municipal-level PSB's (Public Security Bureau) and sub-bureaus at the county and urban district levels. At the grassroots level, finally, there are police stations (Chinese: 派出所; pinyin: Pàichūsuǒ) which serve as the direct point of contact between police and ordinary citizens. While public security considerations have weighed heavily at all levels of administration since the founding of the PRC, the police are perceived by some outside observers to wield progressively greater influence at lower levels of government. Provincial public security bureaus are subject to dual supervision by both local provincial governments and the central government. The ministry is also closely associated with the development of surveillance technologies used by police in China through the Third Research Institute (Chinese: 第三研究所; pinyin: Dì-sān Yánjiūsuǒ; lit. 'No. 3 Research Institute') focused on the development of AI based “smart surveillance,” and censorship technologies.
MPS' internal departments include the General Office, Supervision, Personnel & Training, Public Relations, Economic Crime Investigation, Public Order Administration, Border Control, Criminal Investigation, Exit & Entry Administration, Fire Control, Security Protection, Public Information Network Security Supervision, Penitentiary Administration, Traffic Control, Legal Affairs, International Cooperation, Logistics and Finance, Drug Control, Science & Technology, Counter Terrorism and Info-communications.
The journal Public Security Construction（Chinese: 公安建设; pinyin: Gōng'ān jiànshè）was a classified serial publication for internal purposes. During the disastrous Great Leap Forward between 1958 and 1961, the circular Public Security Work Bulletin (Chinese: 公安工作简报; pinyin: Gōng'ān gōngzuò jiǎnbào) was a top-secret serial which often described China's serious food shortages, social unrest and famine directly contradicting Mao Zedong's claims of "bountiful economic fruit". Another periodical the People's Public Security (Chinese: 人民公安; pinyin: Rénmín gōng'ān)[note 2] was also produced and classified as "for official use only", functioning for the purposes of internal intelligence sharing and coordination among various branches of the public security apparatus.
United front organization
- People's Police of the People's Republic of China
- Public Security Police Force of Macau
- Hong Kong Police Force
- Joske, Alex (January 25, 2022). "Secret police: The Ministry of Public Security's clandestine foreign operations" (PDF). Sinopsis. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 25, 2022. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
- Lulu, Jichang; Jirouš, Filip (February 21, 2022). "Back to the Cheka: The Ministry of Public Security's political protection work" (PDF). Sinopsis. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 21, 2022. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
The CCP security apparatus exploits foreign perceptions of the MPS as equivalent to their own police to further its state security mission. Foreign judiciaries and law enforcement agencies cooperating with the MPS and other organs in the CCP political and legal system become ancillary to the protection of the party's political security.
- Schwarck, Edward (July 2018). "Intelligence and Informatization: The Rise of the Ministry of Public Security in Intelligence Work in China". The China Journal. 80: 1–23. doi:10.1086/697089. ISSN 1324-9347. S2CID 149764208.
- Guo, Xuezhi (2012). "From the Social Affairs Department to Ministry of Public Security". China's Security State: Philosophy, Evolution, and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 64–105. doi:10.1017/cbo9781139150897.003. ISBN 978-1-139-15089-7. OCLC 1277069527.
- Schoenhals, Michael (February 18, 2013). Spying for the People: Mao's Secret Agents, 1949–1967. Cambridge University Press. pp. 31, 42, 105–106, 129. doi:10.1017/cbo9781139084765. ISBN 9781139619714. OCLC 1030095349.
- "Intelligence Report: The International Liaison Department of the Chinese Communist Party" (PDF). Central Intelligence Agency. December 1971. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 31, 2012. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- "China's Xi Names Police Ally to Head Public Security Ministry". Bloomberg News. June 28, 2022. Retrieved November 19, 2023.
- Wang Zhongfang, "Gonganbu shi zemyang chenglide," in Zhu Chunlin (ed.) Lishi shunjian (Beijing: Qunzhong chubanshe, 1999), Vol. 1, pp. 3–16.
- Joske, Alex (2022). "Nestling spies in the united front". Spies and Lies: How China's Greatest Covert Operations Fooled the World. Melbourne: Hardie Grant Books. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-74358-900-7. OCLC 1347020692.
- Gan, Nectar (April 18, 2015). "Revealed: the team behind China's Operation Fox Hunt against graft suspects hiding abroad". South China Morning Post. Retrieved April 1, 2022.
- Rotella, Sebastian; Berg, Kirsten (July 22, 2021). "Operation Fox Hunt: How China Exports Repression Using a Network of Spies Hidden in Plain Sight". ProPublica. Archived from the original on March 5, 2022. Retrieved March 3, 2022.
- Walden, Max (January 18, 2022). "'Why stop?': NGO says Australia's failure to block forced return of residents to China has encouraged Beijing". ABC News. Archived from the original on February 28, 2022. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
- Wright, Tom; Hope, Bradley (January 7, 2019). "China Offered to Bail Out Troubled Malaysian Fund in Return for Deals". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on February 12, 2022. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
- Godement, François; Vasselier, Abigaël (December 1, 2017). "China at the gates: A new power audit of EU-China relations". European Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on March 6, 2022. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
- Spegele, Brian; Hutzler, Charles (July 24, 2023). "WSJ News Exclusive | U.S. Weighs Potential Deal With China on Fentanyl". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved July 25, 2023.
- "US Commerce Dept removes Chinese agency from entity list". Reuters. November 16, 2023. Retrieved November 16, 2023.
- Shinn, David H.; Eisenman, Joshua (2023). China's Relations with Africa: a New Era of Strategic Engagement. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-21001-0.
- Griffiths, James; Galea, Irene (September 21, 2022). "Chinese police establish stations overseas in 'worrying' crackdown on citizens abroad". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
- "Secret Chinese 'police stations' to be investigated around Britain". POLITICO. November 1, 2022. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
- "'A brazen intrusion': China's foreign police stations raise hackles in Canada". The Guardian. November 7, 2022. Retrieved November 17, 2022.
- "Principal Deputy Assistant Attorney General David Newman Delivers Remarks Announcing Transnational Repression Cases". U.S. Department of Justice. April 17, 2023. Retrieved June 17, 2023.
- "China is using the world's largest known online disinformation operation to harass Americans, a CNN review finds". CNN. November 14, 2023. Retrieved November 14, 2023.
- Cheng, Ming (March 1, 1997). "Spy Headquarters Behind the Shrubs -- Supplement to 'Secrets About CPC Spies'". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
- Kania, Elsa (November 16, 2017). "Seeking a Panacea: The Party-State's Plans for Artificial Intelligence (Part 2)". Centre for Advanced China Research (CACR). Archived from the original on July 17, 2021. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
- "The Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China". University of Minnesota Human Rights Library. Retrieved November 5, 2023.
- "Structure of the public security police; whether witness protection programs exist for those fearing organized crime groups". Refworld. 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2023.
- Cheek, Timothy, ed. (August 23, 2010). A Critical Introduction to Mao. Cambridge University Press. p. 116. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511781476. ISBN 9781139789042.
- Lim, J.; Petrone, K. (December 14, 2010). Gender Politics and Mass Dictatorship: Global Perspectives. Springer. p. 238. doi:10.1057/9780230283275. ISBN 9780230283275. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
|Library resources about |
Ministry of Public Security (China)
- John Pike, Federation of American Scientists, Intelligence Resource Program, Ministry of Public Security Archived March 6, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
- Kam C. Wong, Chinese Policing: History and Reform (N.Y.: Peter Lang, 2009)
- Kam C. Wong, Police Reform in China: A Chinese Perspective (Taylor and Francis, 2011) (July 2011)